Translated by Catherine Proppe, August 13, 2015
30. Διονύσου, θυμίαμα στύρακα.
Divine connection: storax
Κικλήσκω Διόνυσον ἐρίβρομον, εὐαστῆρα,
I call Dionysos, uproarious fair star,
πρωτόγονον, διφυῆ, τρίγονον, Βακχεῖον ἄνακτα,
First-born, dual-natured, thrice-parented Bacchian ruler
ἄγριον, ἄρρητον, κρύφιον, δικέρωτα, δίμορφον,
Agrarian, secret, concealed, dual-horned, dual-formed
κισσόβρυον, ταυρωπόν, Ἀρήιον, εὔιον, ἁγνόν,
Luxuriant with ivy, bull-faced warrior, fair-flowering, pure,
ὠμάδιον, τριετῆ, βοτρυηφόρον, ἐρνεσίπεπλον.
In raw form triennially grape-bearing, clothed in young sprouts.
Εὐβουλεῦ, πολύβουλε, Διὸς καὶ Περσεφονείης
Fair counselor of many counsels, child of Zeus and Persephone’s
ἀρρήτοις λέκτροισι τεκνωθείς, ἄμβροτε δαῖμον·
Secret marriage-bed, child divine, undying power
κλῦθι, μάκαρ φωνῆς, ἡδὺς δ' ἐπίπνευσον ἀμεμφής
Hear these blessed words, sweet upon the breath, blameless
εὐμενὲς ἦτορ ἔχων, σὺν ἐυζώνοισι τιθήναις.
Good counselor, heart’s foundation, be as one with the fair-girdled attendants.
 Eri- (ἐρί-) is a prefix used to strengthen the sense of a word. Bromon (βρομον) has two meanings: buzz, roar, loud noise; and oats, wild oats, Avena sativa, Avena barbata. So this word could be interpreted to mean “loud voiced” or “abundant wild oats.”
Bromios is a Theban name for Bacchos, the immortal God of wine and its effects. (Jane Ellen Harrions, “Bromios,” Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, p. 412.)
The followers of Dionysos/Bacchos are often described as frenzied, frantic, orgiastic revelers because they are inspired with the spirit of Dionysos/Bacchos. Often his followers are depicted as predominantly female.
 Eu- (εὐ-) is a prefix meaning good or pure. Asteera (αστῆρα) means star.
 Dionysos is the immortal God of wine and its effects. His name may be derived from “doubly (Δι) + useful/advantageous/beneficial (ὄνησις).” (A likely interpretation because of all the di- prefixes in this hymn.)
Mount Nysa, from which Dionysos was believed to have derived his name, was not only in Thrace and Libya, but mountains of the same name are found in different parts of the ancient world where he was worshipped, and where he was believed to have introduced the cultivation of the vine. http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html
Nyssa (νύσσᾰ) means the marker erected at either end of a race-course; turning-point; sharp point, suggesting that Dionysos may be a God (Διό) of the ritualistic role of drinking wine to mark turning points (νυσος) or to achieve a turning point in one’s state of mind
 Protogonon means first-born, presumably, Semele’s first child.
 Dionysos is dual-natured because his mother, Semele, is mortal and his father, Zeus, is immortal. Other interpretations could be that he has both masculine and feminine characteristics.
 Note that this third characteristic sets up a poetic one-two-three: one (first-born), two (dual nature), three (thrice-parented). Dionysos is thrice-parented because he emerged from his mother’s womb when she was immolated by Zeus’ fire (1). Zeus then sewed the fetus into his own thigh to complete gestation (2). Zeus then entrusted Dionysos to the care of Nymphs on Mount Nysa (3). Althernatively, the third birth may refer to a mystical story that the body of Dionysos was cut up and thrown into a cauldron by the Titans and that he was restored and cured by the Mother Goddess Rhea or the agricultural Goddess Demeter. (Paus. viii. 37. § 3; Diod. iii. 62; Phurnut. N. D. 28.)
It is interesting to note that in Oregon, a mountainous state in the U.S., grapes grow more prosperously after mild fires, suggesting that perhaps the Dionysos birth-by-fire legend reflects agricultural practices:
"The percent cover of Oregon-grape was greater after prescribed spring and fall fires in 1973 compared to a control site on the Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming ."
It is also interesting to note that the name “Semele (σεμέλη)” is associated with the word for “toad (φρύνη).” Some toads lay their eggs in bunches like grapes and the male “common midwife toad” twines the eggs around his thighs until they are ready to hatch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphibian#mediaviewer/File:Alytes_obstetricans_almogavarii_-_male_with_eggs_2.jpg )
 The horns characterize Dionysos' agrarian, untamed, wild nature, like Satyrs and Pans.
In some works of art Dionysos/Bacchos is depicted with horns, either those of a ram or of a bull. This representation occurs chiefly on coins, but never in statues. (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.) http://www.theoi.com/Olympios/Dionysos.html
According to some traditions, Zeus, in order to save his child from a jealously enraged Hera, changed Dionysos into a ram, and carried him to the nymphs of Mount Nysa, who brought him up in a cave. (Hygin. Fab. 182; Theon, ad Arat. Phaen. 177; comp. Hyades.)
Many depictions of Dionysos show him with a drinking horn/rhyton in hand.
 Dual-formed may be a reference to Dionysos taking the form of the grape (1) and the wine (2). It may also refer to Dionysos having both masculine and feminine characteristics.
 Kisso- (κισσό-) means ivy and bruon (βρυον) means filled with.
 These two depictions of Dionysos as both a warrior and a flower may reflect his dual-gender nature. There are many stories that speak of Dionysos’ role in warring expeditions and yet in art he is frequently depicted as somewhat effeminate.
 Dios refers to Zeus.
 Persephone is the immortal Goddess of new life in Spring and the afterlife.