11. Πανός, θυμίαμα ποικίλα.
To Pan, God of “All”
Divine medium: variety of incense
Πᾶνα καλῶ κρατερόν, νόμιον, κόσμοιο τὸ σύμπαν,
Pan, I call, mighty nomad of the cosmos, as one with all,
οὐρανὸν ἠδὲ θάλασσαν ἰδὲ χθόνα παμβασίλειαν
Ruling over all: the sky, sea, earth,
καὶ πῦρ ἀθάνατον· τάδε γὰρ μέλη ἐστὶ τὰ Πανός.
And eternal fire, here given kindly in Hestia through Pan.
ἐλθέ, μάκαρ, σκιρτητά, περίδρομε, σύνθρονε Ὥραις,
Come, blessed one, on your leaping, circling course, enthroned together with the Horai,
αἰγομελές, βακχευτά, φιλένθεε, ἀστροδίαιτε,
Goat-limbed Bacchian, loving enthusiastically, living under the stars,
ἁρμονίαν κόσμοιο κρέκων φιλοπαίγμονι μολπῆι,
Harmonious cosmic strummer, loving playful, solo, song and dance,
φαντασιῶν ἐπαρωγέ, φόβων ἔκπαγλε βροτείων,
Aiding fantasies of excessive phobias in humans.
αἰγονόμοις χαίρων ἀνὰ πίδακας ἠδέ τε βούταις,
Delighting in goatherds’ and ox-herds’ springwater fountains,
εὔσκοπε, θηρητήρ, Ἠχοῦς φίλε, σύγχορε νυμφῶν,
Keen-sighted hunter of Echo’s love and the chorus of Nymphs,
παντοφυής, γενέτωρ πάντων, πολυώνυμε δαῖμον,
All-nature’s parent of all, many-named deity,
κοσμοκράτωρ, αὐξητά, φαεσφόρε, κάρπιμε Παιάν,
Cosmos’ ruler, giving rise to enlightening fruitful Paians,
ἀντροχαρές, βαρύμηνις, ἀληθὴς Ζεὺς ὁ κεράστης.
Cave-delighting, deepest power, truly Zeus with horns!
σοὶ γὰρ ἀπειρέσιον γαίης πέδον ἐστήρικται,
Thou, on boundless Gaia’s ground firmly set,
εἴκει δ' ἀκαμάτου πόντου τὸ βαθύρροον ὕδωρ
Giving way to unwearying Pontos’ deepflowing water,
Ὠκεανός τε πέριξ ἐν ὕδασι γαῖαν ἑλίσσων,
Oceanos’ surrounding waters against Gaia whirling,
ἀέριόν τε μέρισμα τροφῆς, ζωοῖσιν ἔναυσμα,
Aerial too, apportioned nurturing life’s spark,
καὶ κορυφῆς ἐφύπερθεν ἐλαφροτάτου πυρὸς ὄμμα.
And the summit of the highest lightest visible fire,
βαίνει γὰρ τάδε θεῖα πολύκριτα σαῖσιν ἐφετμαῖς
Placing here divine, plenteous, critical, synchronized commands,
ἀλλάσσεις δὲ φύσεις πάντων ταῖς σαῖσι προνοίαις
Exchanging with Phusis all synchronized Forethought,
βόσκων ἀνθρώπων γενεὴν κατ' ἀπείρονα κόσμον.
Nourishing human genesis pure, impenetrable, cosmic.
ἀλλά, μάκαρ, βακχευτά, φιλένθεε, βαῖν' ἐπὶ λοιβαῖς
Yet, blessed Bacchian, enthusiastic lover, dance with these libations,
εὐιέροις, ἀγαθὴν δ' ὄπασον βιότοιο τελευτὴν
Send holy goodness with life-extending completion rites,
Πανικὸν ἐκπέμπων οἶστρον ἐπὶ τέρματα γαίης.
Pan, come, dispatch mad frenzy to the ends of the earth.
Pan (Πάν) is the immortal God of “all (πᾶν).” In this hymn, he is described as ruling over all of nature.
Pan is often depicted as part human/part animal, with tail, horns, and hooves. One of his surnames is Aigokeros (Αἰγόκερως), “horned goat,” which is also the name for the sign of the Zodiac Capricorn (December-January).
Pan is a wandering, randy, free-spirited patron of shepherds, hunters, and fishermen. He is believed to dwell “under the stars” in the great outdoors, haunting forests, pastures, grottoes, caves, mountains, valleys, and coastlines, amusing himself by frolicking with Nymphs and playing music on his pan-pipe. The pan-pipe or syrinx (σύριγξ) is a bundle of reeds that are played somewhat like a flute or harmonica. He particularly enjoys playing his music for the Goddess Echo, and hearing her play it back to him.
Interestingly, Theocritus’ (Θεόκριτος, c. 280 BCE) poem entitled Syrinx (σύριγξ) in the Greek Anthology consists of twenty verses, each pair of lines shorter than the pair before, so that the poem resembles the ten pipes of the Pan-pipe.
Pan’s riotous ways are associated with the revels of Kybele and Dionysos. He is believed to possess prophetic powers, and to have instructed Apollo in the art of prophecy. He was believed during a plague to have revealed in dreams the proper remedy against the disease, and so was called Lyterios (Λυτήριος), the Deliverer.
The term “panic” is derived from the sense of being surrounded by danger on “all” sides.
Ouranos is the immortal God of the heavens.
Thalassa is the immortal Goddess of the sea.
Hestia is the immortal Goddess of the altar/hearth fire.
The Horai are the immortal Goddesses of the seasons and the hours, the proper time for events of nature to occur.
Bacchos is the immortal God of wine and its effects.
Nymphs are beautiful young Goddesses who prevail over a particular location in nature.
Phusis is the immortal Goddess of nature.
A paian is a song of triumph or thanksgiving that unites “all” in a community, literally “under the same roof (Π) + give rise to (α) + divine power (ι) + arise and (ά) + prevail (ν).”
Zeus is the immortal God of the spark of fire, spark of life, and lightning storms.
Gaia is the immortal Goddess of generative earth.
Pontos is the primordial God of the sea, his name emphasizing the all-encompassing nature of the ocean, literally “under the same roof (π) + entity (ό) + prevailing (ν) + stretches/extends (του).”
Oceanos is another name for Pontos, this name emphasizing the generative aspect of the ocean, literally “bring-forth (Ὠ) + core (κ) + essence (ε) + arising (α) + prevailing (ν) + entity (ό).” The salty sea water is poetically compared to divine semen with the earth its partner, thus the comparison of the sea God Poseidon with horses, that is, “hung like a horse” and the epithet “Gaia’s ox (γαιήοχε).”
Pronoia is the immortal Goddess of forethought or foresight.
Libations are drink offerings.
 Schmitz, L. (1870). AEGO′CERUS (Αἰγόκερως). In W. Smith (Ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (Vol. 1, p. 27). Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
 Nonnos, Dionysiaca 45. 174.
 Smith, P. (1870). THEO′CRITUS (Θεόκριτος). In W. Smith (Ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (Vol. 3, p. 1034). Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
 Schmitz, L. (1870). PAN (Πάν). In W. Smith (Ed.), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (Vol. 3, p. 106). Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.
 Pausanias ii. 35. § 5.