Α α alpha (αλφα) arising, arising above pronounce: a, as in "ah-hah!"
The letter Α α means “arising,” “arising-above.”
Α’s shape is that of an upwardly pointing arrow rising through the horizontal horizon line.
The concept of arising is at the essence of divinity and immortality. Aei (άεί) means ever, always, eternity, immortal, perpetual, everlasting, literally “arising essence (of) divine-power.” Aiei (αίει) means everlasting, perpetual, literally “arising divine-power essence.” To the Greeks, life arising from death is as natural as a dying plant’s seeds falling to the ground in autumn and sprouting into new plants in spring.
Aeiro (άείρω) means to lift, raise up, raise.
Aeiphanees (άειφᾰνής) means always above the horizon, ever (άει)-shining (φᾰνής).
Aeksi- (άεξί-) is a prefix meaning increasing. Aekso (άέξω) and aukso (αῠξω) mean to increase, exalt, glorify, grow, rise high.
Aerro (άέρρω) means lift, raise.
Aersi- (άερσί-) is a prefix meaning high, rousing, increasing, uplifting.
An aetos (άετός) is an eagle. In Architecture, an aetos is a gable or pediment, literally “arising essence tension.”
Ag- (άγ-) is a prefix meaning motion upwards, up! arise!
Ageetor (Άγήτωρ) means Leader, the basis for the Latin word agitare: to set in motion. Ageetor (Άγήτωρ) defines an agitator as one who shakes up the center to bring forth change, literally “arising generative center extends, brings-forth outflow.” Webster’s uses the words “arouse . . . disturb . . . toss” to define agitate.
Aionao (αίονάω) means to foment.
Aipeinos (αίπεινός) means high, lofty, with reference to cities on heights, Delphi, mountain-tops, literally “arising divine-power united/under-the-same-roof (π).”
Alpios (άλπιος) means Alps, a great mountain range of Europe.
Aipos (αἷπος, αίπός) means height, steep, high, lofty, literally “arising divine-power unified.” Aipus (αίπύς) means high and steep.
Aiora (αίώρα) means to be hung, raised, lifted; swing, float in the air.
An akra (ἅκρα) is the highest or farthest point, hilltop, height, crest. An akris (ἅκρις) is a hill-top or mountain-peak. An akron (ἅκρον) is the highest or farthest point, moutain-top, peak. Akro- (άκρό-, άκρω-) is a prefix meaning top, highest point (ἅκρος). Akropolis (Άκρόπολις) means upper or higher city.
Aktaino (άκταινόω) means to lift, raise up.
An ambee (ἅμβη) is a raised edge or protuberance. Ambo (ἅμβω) is the crest of a hill, the rim or edge of a cup. In contrast, amblus (άμβλύς) means blunt, dulled, with edge or point taken off, “άμβ loosened.”
Amilla (ἅμιλλα) means contest for superiority.
Ana (άνά, ᾰνᾰ) means motion upward, up! arise!
An anachoee (άναχοή) is an eruption. Anago (άνάγω) means to lead up from a lower place to a higher. Anatheo (άναθέω), in reference to plants, means to shoot up, rise.
Anaphora (άναφορά) means coming up, rising, ascendant.
Anasteema (άνάστημα) is height, high ground.
Anatolee (άνατολή) means the ascendant, the point where the eastern horizon cuts the zodiac. It refers to any heavenly body rising above the horizon. Anatolikos (άνατολικός) means eastern, the basis for the word Anatolia.
An andeeron (ἅνδηρον) is a raised bank by the side of a river or ditch, a dike.
Anegeiro (άνεγείρω) means to wake up, rouse, rouse the spirit, raise.
Aneimi (ἅνειμι) means to go up, rise. Anekas (άνεκάς) means upwards. Anecho (άνέχω) means to hold up, lift up, rise up, emerge.
Anelko (άνέλκω) means to draw up (as from a well), drag up.
Anemeo (άνεμέω) means to vomit up.
Anerpo (άνέρπω) means to creep upwards; to spring up (of water).
Aneeko (άνήκω) means to come up to, reach up to, amount to. Aneelusis (άνήλῠσις) means going up.
Anieemi (άνίημι) means to send up, send forth, to make corn or fruit spring up; to produce offspring; to send up from the grave or netherworld; to let come up; let go, loosen, unfasten.
Animao (άνίμάω) means to draw up, to raise water.
Anisteemi (άνίστημι) means to make stand up, raise up, make to ascend.
Anodia (άνοδία) means ascent.
Anodos (ἅνοδος) means way up, rising; the first (or second) day of the Thesmophoria (Θεσμοφορια). The Thesmophoria is an annual Greek festival held in late November in honor of Demeter, the immortal Goddess of generative earth. The anodos of Demeter is celebrated by women at night with mutual abuse and obscene language in an attempt to make Demeter laugh (reflecting ancient meaning for the phrase attributed to Emerson, “earth laughs in flowers”).
(Jane Ellen Harrison. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991, first published by Cambridge University Press 1903) 136.)
(Ralph Waldo Emerson, “Hamatreya,” Poems, 1847, (reprinted by Digireads.com, 2009) 34.)
Anorouo (άνορούω) means to start up, leap up.
Anorthoo (άνορθόω) means to set up again, restore, rebuild.
Anocheo (άνοχέω) means to raise up.
Ano (ἅνω) means upwards, above, higher; also accomplish, finish, come to an end.
Anothen (ἅνωθέν) means from above, from on high.
Anotheo (ἅνωθέω) means to push up.
Anotatos (άνώτατος) means topmost. Anoterikos (άνωτερικός) means upper, also, a medicine which takes effect upwards, an emetic. Anoteros (άνώτερος) means upper, higher. Anophereia (άνωφέρεια) means motion upwards.
Aorteus (άορτεύς) means hung up, suspended; arteries springing from the heart, the aorta; the point of suspension of a balance.
Apairo (άπαίρω) means to lift off, carry off.
Apanisteemi (άπανίστημι) means to make rise up and depart.
Apeeoros (άπήορος) means hanging on high.
An apopsis (ἅποψις) is a lofty spot or tower that commands a view.
Asso (άσσω) means to spring from a height.
Aukso- (αύξο-) is a prefix meaning increasing. Aukso (Αύξω) is the immortal Goddess of growth.
Achnee (ἅχνη) is anything that comes off the surface: dew; lint; dust; of liquids, foam, froth; of solids, chaff; literally “arising foundation prevailing,” the basis for the word acne.
Aero- (άερο-) is a prefix meaning air, literally “arising essence.” Aerizo (άερίζω) means to be like air. Aerinos (άερῐνος) means aerial, like air. Aerios (άέριος) means in the air.
Aasmos (άασμός) and aazo (άάζω) mean breathing out, expiration, the rising breath.
Aello- (άελλο-) is a prefix meaning storm, stormy wind, whirlwind (ἅελλα), literally “arising essence loosened.”
Aeer (άήρ) means air, mist, haze. Eera (Ήρα,Ἢρη) is the immortal Goddess of air.
Aeemi (ἅημι) means a blast, wind, to breathe hard, blow. Aeetees (άήτης) is a blast or gale.
Aio (άΐω) means breathe, breathe out, literally “arising divine-power bring-forth.”
Anemia (άνεμία) means flatulence, gas escaping from the surface, literally “arising prevailing essence.”
Arteeria (άρτηρία) means wind-pipe, bronchial tube, the basis for the word artery, literally “arising outflow stretch/extend center outflow-of divine-power.”
Autmee (άϋτμή) means breath. Aucheen (αύχήν) means neck, throat.
Aura (αὕρα) means breeze, a cool breeze, the fresh air of morning; a stream of incense, literally “arising pure outflow.”
Aitheer (αίθήρ) means ether, the heaven. Aithree (αϊθρη) means air as an element. Aithrios (αϊθριος) means clear, bright weather.
Anemos (ἅνεμος) means wind, the winds; to the winds; wind in the body, literally “arising prevailing essence.”
Aparktias (άπαρκτίας) is the north wind, literally “arising unified (with the) arctic (αρκτίας).” Apeeliotees (άπηλῐώτης) is the east wind, literally “arising unified (with the) sun/Helios (ηλῐώ).”
Asthma (ἅσθμα) means panting, short-drawn of breath.
Atlas (Ἃτλας) is the immortal God who turns the heavens on their axis, causing the stars to revolve, as described by Virgil:
". . . mighty Atlas who holds aloft on his shoulders the heavenly firmament . . . Atlas who props the starry sky."
(Virgil. Aeneid 8.137, translated by C. Day Lewis (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952, reissued 2008) 225. http://www.amazon.com/Aeneid-Virgil-Worlds-Classics-Lewis/dp/0199537488 )
Atlas (Ἃτλας) is also equated in the Lexicon with the Atlantic Ocean; the axis of the earth; Mount Atlas of West Africa regarded as the pillar of the earth; also, the seventh of the neck vertebrae which supports the head.
Atmee (άτμή) and atmos (άτμός) mean vapor; the basis for the word atmosphere.
Astronomeo (άστρονομέω) and astrologeo (άστρολογέω) are disciplines that involve studying the behavior/principles (νομέω) of the stars and interpretation of their meaning (λογέω).
The rising and setting of heavenly bodies such as the sun and constellations are a means of tracking the passage of time.
Aas (Ἂᾱς) means tomorrow.
Aiglee (αἵγλη) is the light of the sun, daylight, sunshine; radiance, splendor, glory.
Augee (αύγή) is the light of the sun. Augos (αὖγος) means morning light, dawn.
Aurion (αὕριον) means tomorrow.
Aster- (άστερ-) is a prefix meaning stars. Asterios (άστεριος) means of the sphere of the fixed stars. An asteer (άστήρ) is the chief star of a constellation; a shooting star or meteor.
Astrapee (Άστρᾰπη) is the immortal Goddess of lightning.
Detail of figure Astrapee (Άστρᾰπη) (Flash of Lightning). Astrapee holds a thunderbolt. She is depicted with wings, flaming torch and shining aureole.
The J Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, USA, Malibu 86.AE.680, Apulian Red Figure Loutrophoros, Attributed to Painter of Louvre MNB1148, circa 350 - 340 BCE.
Astrikos (άστρικός) means of or concerning the stars. Astron (ἅστρον) means stars.
Anakes (Ἃνᾰκες) are the Dioskoroi (Δῐοσκοροι), Poludeukees (Πολῠδεύκης) (Pollux) and Kastor (Κάστωρ), the twins of the constellation Gemini (May-June).
Artikos (άρτικός) means arctic, northern, near the Bear constellations (Ursa Major and Ursa Minor) which rotate around the celestial pole of the northern hemisphere. Artikos (άρτικός) also means initial, placed at the beginning, originative.
Arktos (άρκτος) means bear and north. Arks (ἅρξ) also means bear, an animal that dominates northern climes.
Arksiphos (ἅρξιφος) means eagle, a bird that dominates the sky (note that ξιφος means sword).
Aithees (αίθής) means burning, literally “arising divine-power.” Aitho (αῖθω) means light up, kindle, burn, blaze, burn fiercely, fiery.
Anophoitos (άνωφοιτος) means mounting upwards, such as of air and fire.
Apto (ἅπτω) means kindle, set on fire.
Aza (ἅζα) means heat, dryness.
Auo (αϋω) means to light a fire, take fire.
AT THE BEGINNING/TO LEAD
Anoig- (άνοιγ-) is a prefix meaning open, opener, to open. Anoiksis (ἅνοιξις) means opening.
Aparchee (άπαρχή) means the beginning of a sacrifice, primal offering (of hairs cut from the forehead); firstlings for sacrifice or offering; first-fruits; entrance fee.
Aparcho (άπάρχω) means to lead the way.
Archaios (άρχαῖος) means from the beginning or origin, ancient, old, the basis for the word archaic, literally “arising outflow-of foundation.”
Archee (άρχή) means beginning, origin.
Archeganos (άρχέγανος) means original, primal, first author or origin.
Archetupikos (άρχέτῠπικος) means archetypal, first-molded as a pattern/model, ideal.
Archeegos (άρχηγος) means beginning, originating.
Archo (άρχω) means to be first, begin; rule, govern. Archos (άρχός) means leader, chief.
Au (αὖ) means anew, afresh, literally “arising pure.”
Aut- (αύτ-) and auth- (αύθ-) are prefixes meaning self-, unique to self, original.
Auto- (αύτο-) is a prefix meaning of itself, one’s own, self; of one’s own accord; by oneself, alone. Autos (αύτός) means self.
Authentees (αύθεντης) means author, the basis for the word authentic.
Authentia (αύθεντία) means to have absolute sway, authority.
Authentikos (αύθεντικός) means authentic, authoritative; original, principal.
Autheuretos (αύθεύρετος) means self-discovered.
Autosophos (αύτοσοφος) means endowed with innate wisdom.
Autotelees (αύτοτελής) means ending in itself, complete in itself, perfect, complete, self-sufficing, sovereign, independent.
Autochthon (αύτόχθων) means sprung from the land itself, not settlers, indigenous, native.
A point is the part of an object at the very tip-top of its surface.
Akmee (άκμή) means point, edge, highest or culminating point of anything, the basis for the word acme, literally “arising core meta center.”
The acme of the summit of Mount Everest. http://world-tourist-places.blogspot.com/2012/06/basic-information-to-mount-everest.html
Aichmee (αίχμή) is the point of a spear.
Akantha (ἅκανθα) means thorn, prickle, or thistle.
Rose thorns. http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=16239&picture=rose-thorns&large=1
An akis (άκίς) is a pointed object.
Akonao (άκονάω) and apakonao (άπᾰκονάω) mean to sharpen, sharpen to a point.
Ardis (ἅρδις) is the point of an arrow, literally “arising outflow-of directed-trajectory.”
Aks- (άξ-) is a prefix meaning counterbalancing, literally “arising separate-from.”
Aksinee (άξϊνη) means axe, a counterbalanced tool.
Axe, Made of bronze and gold, circa 1600 BCE found in the Arkalochori Cave in Crete, called the Arkalochori Axe, Herakleion Archaelogical Museum, Crete. http://ancient-greece.org/museum/muse-iraclion.html http://www.onassis.gr/enim_deltio/foreign/08/story_01.php
Akson (ἅξων) means axis, axis of the celestial sphere, axle, the pole/line about which a rotating body turns.
Axis of celestial sphere. http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/cosmos/C/Celestial+Sphere
REACH THE APEX
Adreo (άδρέω) means to be full-grown, matured. Adros (άδρός) means full-grown, ripe, mature, thick, stout, full, swollen, the best-grown, a fine animal, a fat animal. Adrotees (άδροτής) means vigor, strength.
Aizeeos (αίζηός) means in full bodily strength.
Alkee (άλκή) means strength as displayed in action, prowess, courage, feats of strength. Alki (άλκί) means might, strength.
Akmazo (άκμάζω) means to be in full bloom, at the prime.
Anee (ἅνη) and ano (ἅνω) mean fulfillment.
Anuo (άνύω) means to accomplish, bring to pass.
Aparti (άπαρτί) means completely, make even, perfect.
Aperdo (άπέρδω) means to bring to an end, finish.
Aperg- (άπεργ-) is a prefix meaning finish off, complete, bring to perfection.
Aoton (ἅωτον) means the choicest, the flower of its kind, prime, fairest.
Aphalmos (άφαλμός) means springing off, jumping.
Aphepso (άφέψω) means to purify or refine by boiling off.
Aphee (άφή) means lighting, kindling.
Aphieemi (άφίημι) means to send forth, discharge, let go, loose, set free. Apheetor (άφητωρ) means archer; prophet.
Aphesis (ἅφεσις) means letting go, release, discharge; the first start, beginning of anything, start of a race.
Aphormos (ἅφορμος) means moving off from, departing from.
Aphros (άφρός) means foam (of the sea, of animals). Aphrioeis (άφριόεις) means foamy. Webster’s defines foam as “a collection of minute bubbles formed on the surface.”
Aphupnizo (άφυπνίζω) means wake up.
Aphedreia (άφεδρεία) and aphedros (ἅφεδρος) mean menstruation.
Aphrodisia (Άφροδίσια) means to have sexual intercourse, (possibly “release (άφ-) rose (ροδίσια)”?).
Rosebud resembles vaginal opening. http://www.publicdomainpictures.net/view-image.php?image=12272&picture=rose-bud&large=1
Aphroditee (Άφροδίτη) is Aphrodite, the immortal Goddess of sexual love, sexual pleasure. Aphro (Άφρώ) is another name for Aphrodite.
In Hippolytus by Euripides, the Nurse, speaking of Aphrodite, says:
“. . . from her (Aprodite) all nature springs; she sows the seeds of love, inspires the warm desire to which we sons (sic) of earth all owe our being.”
(Euripides (circa 428 BCE), Hippolytus, The Plays of Euripedes, translated by Edward P. Coleridge (London: George Bell & Sons, York Street, Covent Garden, 1891) 87.) (http://classics.mit.edu/Euripides/hippolytus.html )
The Greek poet Sappho describes the overwhelming emotion of love:
“For when I see thee but a little,
I have no utterance left,
my tongue is broken down,
and straightway a subtle fire has run under my skin, with my eyes I have no sight,
my ears ring,
sweat pours down, and a trembling seizes all my body;
I am paler than grass,
and seem in my madness little better than one dead.
But I must dare all, since one so poor . . .”
(Sappho (circa 600 BCE), Sappho: Memoir, Text, Selected Renderings and a Literal Translation, “Fragment 65,” translated by Henry Thornton Wharton (New York and London: John Lane, 1885). (http://www.archive.org/stream/sapphomemoir00sappiala/sapphomemoir00sappiala_djvu.txt )
Red-figure vase by the Group of Polygnotos, circa 440–430 BCE. Sappho is seated, reading one of her poems to a group of three. National Archaeological Museum in Athens, 1260. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:NAMA_Sappho_lisant.jpg
The following poem by Sappho addressed to Aphrodite, circa 600 BCE, is powerful in its sensuality:
“Come to me from Crete to this holy temple,
Aphrodite. Here is a grove of apple
trees for your delight, and the smoking altars
fragrant with incense.
Here cold water rustles down through the apple
branches; all the lawn is beset and darkened
under roses, and, from the leaves that tremble, sleep
comes descending. Here is a meadow pasture
where the horses graze with flowers of
now in blossom, here where the light winds passing
blow their freshness.
Here in this place, lady of Cyprus, lightly
lifting, lightly pour in the golden goblets
as for those who keep a festival, nectar: wine for our
(Sappho, translated by Richmond Lattimore, The Horizon Book of Ancient Greece (New York: American Heritage Publishing, 1965), 141.)
Apo (άπό) means from, sprung from, inspired by, from or of which a thing is made, cause of, from the beginning of. Apo- (άπο-) is a prefix for many, many words.
Apoluo (άπολύω) means to loose from.
Poll- (πολλ-) is a prefix meaning many.
Apollon (Άπόλλων, Άπέλλων) is the immortal God Apollo, the God who sets things loose/in motion, the God from whom many things spring, literally “arising (ά) many (πολλ) brings-forth (ω).”
Apollo is the companion of the Muses and the inspiration for the “oracle” at Delphi. Muses are immortal Goddesses who are the bridges between the macro and the micro (the individual). An “oracle” is an individual who channels divine truth.
According to Theoi.com, “Apollon (or Apollo) [is] the great Olympian [G]od of prophecy and oracles, healing, plague and disease, music, song and poetry, archery, and the protection of the young. He [is] depicted as a handsome, beardless youth with long hair and various attributes including:--a wreath and branch of laurel; bow and quiver; raven; and lyre.”
Detail of Apollon from a painting depicting the birth of Dionysos. The God is shown in the guise of the God of Delphi, holding a laurel branch and wearing a laurel-wreath. Museo Nazionale Archeologico di Taranto, Italy, Catalog Number Taranto 8264, circa 405-385 BCE. http://www.theoi.com/Gallery/K5.11.html
The Orphic Hymn 33, To Apollo (33-42), describes Apollo as the immortal God who confers the variety of forms found in nature and orchestrates the harmony of the seasons:
“. . . All Nature’s tribes to thee their diff’rence owe,
And changing seasons from thy music flow:
Hence, mix’d by thee in equal parts, advance
Summer and Winter in alternate dance;
This claims the highest, that the lowest string,
The Dorian measure tunes the lovely spring . . .
Since to thy care, the figur’d seal’s consigned,
Which stamps the world with forms of every kind . . .”
(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 164.)
Apas (άπᾱς) means all, the whole, all together, in all things, all possible, every one, everything, literally "arising unity."
Apeiraios (Άπειραῖος) means Limitless-land (an imaginary place); times without number. Apeiresios (άπειρέσιος) means boundless, countless. Apeiria (άπειρία) means infinity, eternity. Apeiros (άπειρος) means boundless, infinite, limitless.
Apelethros (άπελεθρος) means immeasurable, countless. Aperantos (άπέραντος) means boundless, infinite, endless, countless, no end to. Aperatos (άπέρᾰτος) means boundless.
The Apis (Άπις) bull is central to religious worship in ancient Egypt. Apisoo (άπῐσόω) means make equal, to be made equal to. Apisosis (άπίσωσις) means equalization.
Stele dedicated by King Amasis to the Apis bull that died during his reign.
Department of Egyptian Antiquities: The final Pharaonic dynasties and the Ptolemaic period (circa 1069 - 30 BCE). Musee du Louvre, Paris, France. http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/stele-dedicated-king-amasis-apis-bull-died-during-his-reign
In Greek philosophy, renewal is intrinsic to the concept of eternity.
Aei (άεί) means ever, always, eternity, immortal, perpetual, everlasting, literally “arising essence divine-power.”
Aiei (αίει) means everlasting, perpetual.
Aeizoees (άειζωης) means ever-living. Aeizoia (άειζωία) means ever-lasting life.
Aisa (Αῖσα) is the immortal Goddess of fate who spins the thread of life from the circumstances surrounding one’s birth. Quintus Smyrnaeus describes Aisa as omnipotent:
“For not Kronos' Son [Zeus] can stay the hand of Aisa, whose might transcendeth all the immortals."
(Quintus Smyrnaeus (circa 350 CE), Fall of Troy 14. 96 ff, translated by A.S. Way, Loeb Classical Library Volume 19. (London: William Heinemann, 1913.))
Aisimos (αϊσιμος) means appointed by the will of the immortal Gods and Goddesses, destined, agreeable to the decree of fate.
Aeizos (άειζως) means ever-living, everlasting, the immortals, evergreen.
Aeichronios (άειχρόνιος) means everlasting.
Aenaees (άεναής) means ever-flowing, everlasting.
An Aeiesto (Άειεστώ) is an eternal being who is ever-living, with ever-lasting life.
An aion (αίων) means a lifetime, age, generation, long space of time, the basis for the words aeon and eon.
Aeria, Eeeriee (Άερία, Ηερίη) are old names of Egypt.
Aiguptios (Αίγύπτιος) means Egyptian. Aigupios (αίγῠπιός) means vulture, a symbol of death and renewal. In artistic depictions, the immortal Egyptian Goddess Isis (Ἶσις) wears a vulture headdress crowned with bull-horns.
The immortal Goddess Isis at Abydos. Isis wears a vulture headdress (symbol of death and renewal) topped by the horns of a bull cradling the sun-disc, circa 1371 BCE. Image at: www.kenseamedia.com/ egyptian_Gods/isis.htm
Aidios (αΐδιος) means everlasting, eternal.
Aidas/Aidees (Ἀΐδας, Ἅιδης, Ἀΐδης) is the immortal God of the afterlife, Hades; the netherworld, the place of departed spirits; in Astrology, the region below the Oroskopos (ώροσκοπος) (Horoscope) (the sign or degree rising at the time of birth).
Aidoion (αίδοῖον) means privy parts, the genital organs, especially those of the female.
Aidoios (αίδοῖος) means having a claim to regard, reverence.
Aidos (αίδώς) means reverence, awe, respect for the feeling or opinion of others or for one’s conscience, self-respect, sense of honor, sense of shame, regard for others, respect.
Aidonaia (Άιδωναία) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess of plurality, Ekatee (Έκατη) (Hecate). (The name Hecate/Ekatee is nearly identical to the word for one hundred, ekaton (εκατόν) (hecaton), a number used for exaggerative effect by Greek writers.)
Azeechees (άζηχής) means continuous, unceasing. Azeesia (Άζησία) is a name for the immortal Goddess Demeter.
Azomai (ἅζομαι) means to stand in awe of, especially of Gods and Goddesses and one’s parents; reverence, holy fear.
Adon (Ἃδων) is Adonis (Ἃδωνις). The death and revival of Adonis are occasions for mourning and rejoicing coinciding with the new growth of vegetation in the spring.
The immortal Goddess of love, Aphrodite, loved Adonis and with anguish mourned his death when he was gored by a wild boar:
“She (Aphrodite) saw, she marked his irresistible wound, she saw his thigh fading in a welter of blood, she lift her hands and put up the voice of lamentation saying ‘Stay, Adonis mine, stay . . .
“’Awake Adonis, awake for a little while, and give me one latest kiss; kiss me all so long as ever the kiss be alive, till thou give up thy breath into my mouth and thy spirit pass into my heart, till I have . . . drunk up all thy love . . .
“’O Persephone, take thou my husband, take him if thou wilt; for thou art far stronger than I . . .’
“The Paphian (Aphrodite) weeps and Adonis bleeds, drop for drop, and the blood and tears become flowers upon the ground . . .”
(Note that Persephone is the immortal Goddess of the afterlife and Spring renewal.)
(Theocritus. The Greek Bucolic Poets, “The Poems and Fragments of Bion: I. The Lament for Adonis,” translated by J.M. Edmonds, Loeb Classical Library (London: William Heinemann; New York: MacMillan Co, 1912) 389-391 http://books.google.com/books?id=IMrCpKxmgCUC&q=adonis#v=snippet&q=adonis&f=false )
The Anthesteeria (Άνθεστήρια) is the Anthesteria, a Spring festival of death and renewal that takes place at the end of February/beginning of March, literally “arising prevailing divine essence.” Harrison describes the significance of the Anthesteria:
“When the dead earth begins to awake and put forth bud and blossom, then the ghosts too have their spring time, then is the moment to propitiate the dead below the earth.”
(Jane Ellen Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (Cambridge University Press, 1903) 54.)
The Anthesphoria (Άνθεσφόρια) is a Spring festival commemorating the immortal Goddess Persephone’s return from the afterlife to reunite with her Mother, Demeter, bringing new life to earth.
(William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (London: John Murray, 1875), 98. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Anthesphoria.html )
Anth- (άνθ-) is a prefix meaning flower, bloom, literally “arising prevailing divine.” Antheion (ἅνθειον) is a flower or blossom. Anthemon (ἅνθεμον) means flowers. Antheo (άνθέω) means blossom, bloom. An anthee (ἅνθη) is the full bloom of a flower or plant. Anthos (ἅνθος) means blossom, flower, bloom.
Anthrop- (άνθρωπ-) is a prefix meaning human.
Anthropos (ἅνθρωπος) means human, the basis for the word anthropology. The word anthropos (ἅνθρωπος) is generally translated into English as "men."
SACRED, PURE, MAGNIFICENT, DIVINE, ABOVE THE REST
Ag- (άγ-) is a prefix meaning holy, pure, sacred, literally “arising generative.”
Agizo (άγίζω) means to hallow or make sacred. Agios (ἂγιος) means devoted to the immortal Gods and Goddesses.
Agn- (ἅγν-) is a prefix meaning purify.
Agneia (άγνεία) means purity, chastity; religious.
Agnizo (άγνίζω) means to wash off, cleanse, purify, hallow, consecrate.
Agnos (άγνός) means pure, chaste, holy.
Agos (ἅγος) is any matter of religious awe, such as atonement; sacrifice.
Agatho- (άγαθο-) is a prefix meaning good (άγᾰθος). Aganos (ἅγᾰνός) means mild, gentle, kind.
Agapee (άγάπη) means love.
Agallo (άγάλλω) means glorify, exalt. Agalma (ἅγαλμα) means glory, delight, honor.
Agamai (ἅγᾰμαι) means wonder, to wonder at, admire, be delighted with.
Agee (ἂγη) means wonder or amazement.
Aglaia (άγλαΐα) means splendor, beauty, magnificence, glory, honor.
Agro- (άγρο-) is a prefix meaning the fields, the country, the basis for the word agriculture.
Agros (άγρός) means fields, lands, tilled land, the country, literally “arising generative outflow.”
Interestingly, the word for “market,” agora (άγορά), in modern terms “farmer’s market,” is formed by transposing two letters from the word for agriculture: agros (άγρός).
Agora (άγορά) means an assembly of the People, a place of assembly, and refers to the business of the agora, such as the marketplace and public speaking. As a gathering place in the city, the agora is a centerpiece of public life.
Agon (άγών) means a gathering, assembly, contest, or speech delivered at an assembly.
Aggeion (άγγεῖον) means a vessel, pail, bucket, sack, receptacle (perhaps for carrying purchased items).
Aggelia (άγγελία) means a message, tidings, announcement, command, order (announced at the agora).
Agelee (άγέλη) means a herd, flock, company, crowd.
Aguia (ἅγυια) means a street; highway.
Agkas (άγκάς) means into or in the arms. Agkoina (ἅγκοινα) and agkalee (ἅγκάλη) mean anything enfolding.
Ant- (αντ-), literally “arising prevailing tension,” is a prefix meaning confronted with, face to face, in answer, in return, opposite, instead of, counter, reciprocally implied, in exchange, opposition, taken as equivalent, interchange, reply, in response, in answer, counteracting, compensate, correspond to. The prefix ant- (αντ-) puts concepts in balance with one another.
Antao (άντάω) means to come opposite to, the basis for the word antagonist.
Artio (άρτῐο) means an even number, literally “arising outflow-of tension.” Tension requires an even balance of force.
Artios (ἅρτιος) means complete, perfect, exactly fitted; of numbers, it means perfect, even.
Artiotees (άρτῐοτης) means soundness, entireness; of numbers, evenness.
Artemeo (άρτεμέω) means to be safe and sound.
Artemon (άρτέμων) is the foresail of a ship; the principal pulley in a system.
Artemis (Ἃρτεμις, Ἃρταμις) is the immortal Goddess of independence and self-sufficiency, as reflected in her virginity and hunting skills, symbols of living outside the bonds of civilization.
Agra (Ἅγρα) is a title of Artemis at Athens. Agrias (άγιάς) and agrios (ἅγριος) mean wild, untamed.
Artemis the Hunter. http://department.monm.edu/classics/courses/clas230/MythDocuments/Images/Artemis.jpg
Aristee (Άρίστη) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess Artemis. Aristeuma (άρίστευμα) means a deed of prowess; those who exceed in valor; chiefs; valiant; to be best. Aristo- (άριςτό-) is a prefix meaning the best (ἅριστος). Aristokratikos (άριςτόκρᾰτικός) means aristocratic. According to Webster’s the prefix aristo- is “probably a term specifying at first the upper class of society, the warrior class.”
Artemisia (άρτεμισία) is absinth wormwood, Artemesia absinthium.
Artemis is also the name given by the Greeks to the immortal Goddess of Ephesus (Turkey), whose statues feature bull-testicles hanging from the vest of her garment to reflect her role as tamer of bulls and facilitator of the yoking of the bull for agricultural purposes. Castrated bulls are more easily led, more docile, and easier to handle than intact bulls, making them useful to agricultural tasks. Also, castrated bulls produce more and better quality meat.
Many ancient coins depicting Artemis on one side feature a bull on the reverse side. A statue of Artemis at the Ephesus museum features bulls on her chest. The protrusions on the torso of several statues of Artemis closely resemble bull-testicles.
Phygela, a city just south of Ephesus, circa 350-300 BCE Head of Artemis / Bull butting right http://www.asiaminorcoins.com/gallery/thumbnails.php?album=136
Bulls depicted on the torso of Artemis.
Ephesus Museum, Hall of Artemis, Section 8, Item 9 on 20, Greek Antiquities Sculpture (Torse), circa 50 CE. http://worldvisitguide.com/oeuvre/O0023630.html
Artemis statue with bull testicles on torso. http://www.ephesus.us/images/artemision-right.gif
Bull testicle. http://ccfoodtravel.com/2010/07/about-cow-brains-and-bulls-testicles/
Ara (ἅρᾰ) is a connecting word meaning, “thus, then,” indicating that the next arises from the preceding, literally “arising flow.”
Ardeen (ἅρδην) means lifted up on high.
Arethousa (Άρέθουσα) is the name of several fountains. Ardo (ἅρδω) means to water, irrigate, to furnish drink.
Areion (άρείων) means better, stouter, braver.
Aretee (άρετή) means excellence, braveness, glorious deeds, wonders, miracles.
Areego (άρήγω) and arogee (άρωγή) mean help, aid, succor.
Arsis (ἅρσις) means raising or lifting.
Aruo (άρύω) means to draw water; also, of stars rising from the sea.
FIT TOGETHER, COME TOGETHER
Armonia (άρμονία) means harmony; a means of joining, fastening; framework; concord; the Pythagorean name for three. Monia (μονία) means stable, steady, fixed, so armonia (άρμονία) translates as “arising flow-of stability.”
Arthmeo (άρθμέω) means to be united, arthmios (άρθμιος). Arthmos (άρθμός) means a bond, league, friendship.
Arthritis (άρθρῖτις) means of or in the joints. Arthroo (άρθρόω) means fastened by a joint, to be jointed.
Armee (άρμή) means a junction, fitting together, joint. Armos (άρμός) means a joint in masonry, fastening, joining.
Armozo (άρμόζω) means marriage; kiss; bind fast; fit well.
Arpus (Ἅρπυς) is another name for Eros (Ἕρως), the immortal God of love.
Arsa (ἅρσα) means join, fit together.
Artao (άρταω) means to fasten or hang one thing upon another.
Arithmos (άριθμός) is the science of numbers, literally “arising flow-of divine-power divine meta/medium.”
Arithmos (άριθμός) means number; rhythm in Prose; precise conditions in Medicine; and degrees traversed in a given time in Astrology; also, degrees of latitude.
Arithmeo (άριθμέω) means number, count, account, reckon.
Arithmios (άριθμιος) means numerical.
ARIES: RAM, LAMB, SHEEP
Arneios (ἅρνειός, άρνεώς) means a ram.
Arneeos (Άρνῆος) is the constellation Aries, the Ram which rises in late March, early April, the time of the spring equinox. The appearance of the constellation Aries marks the beginning of the new year.
According to Webster’s, Hill, and Hyginus, Aries is “the first sign of the zodiac.” (Hyginus 2.20 on Hermippus). Aries is also called Krios (Κρῑός).
John Hill explains the first three signs of the Zodiac (Ram, Bull, Goats) as corresponding to the timing of domestic animals’ breeding:
“They (the original namers of the Zodiac signs, predating the Egyptians and Greeks) saw the return of the spring call up the grass, and they saw the same season give strength to the young of the several domestic animals; they found the sheep the earliest of these in its produce, and they marked the time of the sun’s return to a certain part of the heavens, as the period at which this return of the spring was made, and the vegetable and animal world imbibed this new life . . .
“In the same manner a Bull (Taurus) was placed next in order, the produce of that animal being a little later in the season than that of the sheep, and after that the Goat (Gemini/The Twins) . . . the goat usually bringing forth two at a time, the cow and sheep only one.”
(John Hill, Urania: Or, a Compleat View of the Heavens; Containing the Antient and Modern Astronomy, in Form of a Dictionary (London: printed for T. Gardner; and sold by all the booksellers in Great Britain and Ireland, 1754. Reprinted by Gale ECCO Print Editions) “Aries.”)
Hill says that “the names, by which it (the constellation Aries) is called in the oriental languages, signify a Lamb, and not a Ram.”
(John Hill, Urania: Or, a Compleat View of the Heavens; Containing the Antient and Modern Astronomy, in Form of a Dictionary (London: printed for T. Gardner; and sold by all the booksellers in Great Britain and Ireland, 1754. Reprinted by Gale ECCO Print Editions) “Aries.”)
Arneios (ἅρνειος) means of a lamb or sheep. Areen (άρήν) means lamb or sheep.
Aree (άρή) means bane, ruin, literally “arising outflow-of center,” perhaps originally in reference to natural disasters such as volcanoes, earthquakes, and floods.
Arees (Ἅρης) is Ares, the immortal God of death, destruction, plague, war, and ruin.
Orphic Hymn 64 To Mars (Ares) addresses Ares as one who delights in bloodshed (5-8):
“. . . Mortal destroying king, defil’d with gore,
Pleas’d with war’s dreadful and tumultuous roar:
Thee, human blood, and swords, and spears delight,
And the dire ruin of mad savage fight . . . ”
The Hymn goes on to entreat Ares to yield to Venus (Aphrodite/Love) and Bacchus (Wine), and “to Ceres (Demeter) give the weapons of the field,” that is, let war yield to lovemaking and drinking, and turn weapons into farming implements.
(Orpheus. The Hymns of Orpheus (circa 200 BCE), translated by Thomas Taylor, introductory preface by Manly P. Hall (London: Printed for the Author, 1792. Reprinted Los Angeles, CA: The Philosophical Research Society, 1981) 197.)
Arpee (ἅρπη) is a bird of prey; a sickle.
The Arpuiai (Ἅρπυιαι) means Snatchers: whirlwinds or hurricanes.
Arpazo (άρπάζω) means to snatch away, carry off, seize. (This word is frequently mistranslated as “rape.”)
FOOD AND FOOD PROCESSING
Aktee (άκτή) means corn, literally “arising core/Kore.” (Kore is another name for the immortal Goddess Persephone.)
Aleo (άλέω) and alesis (ἅλεσις) mean grind, literally “arising loosened essence.” Aleuro- (άλευρο-) is a prefix meaning flour.
Aloao (άλοάω) means to tread, thresh, crush, smash. Alos (ἅλως) is the threshing-floor, where grain was pounded/grinded to loosen the husk.
Althano (άλθάνω) means to bring in, yield.
Alphee (άλφή) means produce, gain. Alphiton (ἅλφῐτον) is barley-groats, sprinkled over roast meats, especially sacrificial animals.
Aloa (Άλῶα) is a festival of the immortal Goddess Demeter as the inventor of agriculture.
Amalla (ἅμαλλα) is a bundle of ears of corn, a sheaf. Amao (άμάω) means to reap corn.
Ampelos (ἅμπελος) is any climbing plant with tendrils, especially the grape-vine. Ampel- (άμπελ-) is a prefix meaning vine.
Arao (άράω) means plough. Arosimos (άρόσιμος) means arable, fruitful, fit for engendering. Arotos (ἅροτος) means corn-field; ploughing; the procreation of children; generation. Aroura (ἅρουρα) are corn-lands, fields. Aroo (άρόω) means plough, till, literally “arising outflow-of entity.”
Armalia (αρμαλιά) means sustenance allotted, food.
Arto- (άρτο-) is a prefix meaning bread. Artos (ἅρτος) is a cake or loaf of wheat-bread.
Artuo (άρτύω) means to arrange, prepare, make ready. Artusis (ἅρτῦσις) means a dressing, seasoning, condiment, the “finishing touch.” Artutos (άρτῡτός) means seasoned, flavored.
Aroma (αρωμα) means an aromatic herb or spice; arable land; corn-land.
Astachus (ἅστᾰχυς) means an ear of corn.
Achuron (ἅχῠρον) means the chaff, bran, husks left after threshing or grinding.
The great Greek and Roman ampitheatros (άμφιθέατρος), ampitheatres, magnificent places of worship, were often built into a hillside.
Ampitheatres offered complete immersion in religious experiences, such as dramatic performances of the Hymns of Orpheus.
Amph- (άμφ-) is a prefix meaning encircle, all around, surround.
The Theater at Delphi http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Delphi_Composite.jpg
The Theater at Ephesus (in modern-day Turkey) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Ephesus_Theater.jpg
The ancient theater of Dodona, Epirus, Greece. Photo by Onno Zweers http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:D70-0404-dodona.jpg
The ancient theatre of Epidauros in the Peloponnese region of southern Greece was built circa 350 BCE. (Greek National Tourism Organisation).
Download high resolution image (196.75 KB)
SOUND, SONG, SPEECH
Thea (θέᾱ), the basis for the word theatre, in addition to meaning “Goddess” and “that which is seen,” also means auditorium (αύδιτωριον), a place of hearing. Thea (θέᾱ) translates literally, “divine essence arising.”
Audao (αύδάω) means something audible, the basis for the word audience and the prefix audio-.
Audee (αύδή) means human voice, speech.
Auteo (άϋτέω) means cry, shout, call to, proclaim.
Akousis (άκουσις) means hearing, the basis for the word acoustic. Akou- (άκου-) is a prefix meaning hear. Akoee (άκοή) means a sound heard, a hearing.
Aeido (άείδω) means sing. An aeedo (άηδώ) is a singer; nightingale; poet.
Asma (άσμα) means song, lyric, ode, hymn.
Aineo (αίνέω) means to tell, speak of, praise. Ainos (αῖνος) is a tale, story; saying, proverb; decree.
Anumneo (άνυμνέω) means divine will proclaimed by “oracle;” celebrate in song.
Aoidee (άοιδή) means song, lyric poetry. An aoidos (άοιδός) is a singer.
Apagg- (άπαγγ-) is a prefix meaning report, narrative, recital, description.
Ara (άρά) means prayer.
Aretai (άρεταί, άρετή) are sacred words. An areeteer (άρήτήρ) is one who prays.
ATHENS AND ATHENA
Athroizo (άθροίζω) means to gather together. Athroos (ἅθρόος) means in crowds, heaps, or masses crowded together, together in a body.
Atthis (Άτθίς) means Attic (Άττικός), Attica, of Athens (Άττῐκ-).
Atheenee/Athana (Άθήνη, Άθάνα, Άθᾶναι, Άθᾱναια) is Athena, the immortal Goddess of Athens (Άθῆναι, Άθᾶναι). (The Laconian name for Athena is Asana (Άσάνα, Άσᾶναι, Άσᾱναῖος).
As the Goddess of the State, Athena was frequently portrayed as a warrior-Goddess.
Athena slays Enceladus. Interior from an Attic red figure dish, circa 525 BCE, Louvre Museum, France. Image at: en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Enceladus_(mythology)
Athenian coins circa 400 BCE feature an image of Athena on one side and an owl (glauks (γλαύξ)) on the other.
Helmeted head of Athena right, with profile eye. Rev: Owl standing right, head facing; olive spray and crescent above; all within incuse square. SNG Copenhagen 63. good VF. Toned http://www.ancient-coins.com/itemdetail.asp?&item=7529
Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves over visor and a spiral palmette on the bowl. Rev: Owl standing right, head facing, with spread tail feathers; olive sprig and crescent behind. Cop. 32. EF toned http://www.ancient-coins.com/itemdetail.asp?&item=7858
The magnificent Parthenon (Παρθενών), literally “unified arising outflow-of divine essence prevailing,” that crowns the Acropolis (Άκρόπολις, “Upper/Higher City”) in Athens originally housed a 40-foot, gold- and ivory-plated statue of Athena.
The Parthenon dominates the Acropolis in Athens. http://skvots.net/a-guide-to-athens.html
“The radiantly beautiful Parthenon was the spiritual center of Athens. Unlike some Greek temples, it served only one divinity, the [G]oddess Athena, spirit of creative and active intelligence and the guardian deity of Athens. The whole plan was subordinated to her worship. The Parthenon was begun in 447 BCE and finished in 432 BCE. Its architect was Ictinus, its ‘master of words’ Callicrates, and its decorations were designed and supervised by the sculptor Phidias. It is one of the largest known Greek temples . . . Standing on its hill it is visible from miles around, especially the sea-ships crossing the Saronic Gulf saw it from afar, the manifest evidence of Athenian wealth and power.
“For Athenians, however, the Parthenon was much more than this. It was a sacred shrine as well as symbol of temporal authority. Standing inside in the shadowy sanctuary was Phidias’ monumental statue of Athena, 40 feet high, fashioned of wood and covered in gold and ivory—gold for the [G]oddess’ clothing, ivory for her flesh . . .
“The frieze encircling the building depicts the colorful procession climaxing Athena’s festival, the Great Panathenaea, held every fourth year. It is a solemn and also a happy occasion, a holy day and a holiday.”
(C.M. Bowra, Classical Greece (New York: Time-Life Books, 1965) 99.)
As a commercial, trade, political, military, athletic, cultural, social, religious, artistic, and intellectual center, ambitious people may have been drawn to ancient Athens, perhaps saying to themselves, “if I can make it there, I’ll make it anywhere.”
(Fred Ebb. Lyrics for the John Kander theme song for Martin Scorsese’s film New York, New York, 1977.)
Athlos (ἆθλος) means contest, either in war or sport. Aethlios (άέθλιος) means gaining the prize.
Athleuo (άθλεύω) means to contend for a prize in the athletic world. An athlon (άθλον) means a prize of contest or a place of combat.
Athuro (άθύρω) means play or sport.
THE AETOLIAN AND ACHAEAN LEAGUES
Aitios (αϊτιος) means responsible.
Aitolia (Αίτωλία) is Aetolia, the Aetolian League. “Delphi, between 290 and 190 BCE, was the ecclesiastical capital of the League.”
(William John Woodhouse, Aetolia (Princeton University Library, 1897) 101. http://books.google.com/books?id=XYloQF5b53gC&pg=PA101&lpg=PA101&dq=aetolia+delphi&source=bl&ots=FY400U-wPT&sig=pQnmRcEs5b683XbXF7xhGIaGJB4&hl=en&ei=NagyTrD-PMKSgQfQhdzmAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=aetolia%20delphi&f=false
A coin, below, features the immortal Goddess of the Aetolian League, Aeotolia, on one side and the immortal Goddess Artemis on the other. AETOLIAN LEAGUE. Laureate head of Artemis r., hair in a tuft at back of head; bow and quiver at back, below, FI Rev. AITWLWN Aetolia with chiton and chlamys seated r. on pile of shields, head facing, holding spear with her r. hand, sword in her l. hand resting on her knees; in field r., monogram and trophy. A. J. Reinach, L'Etolie sur les trophées gaulois de Kallion, JIAN 13 (1911), 200, 43. Weber Coll. 3124. http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=31877
The Achaean (Άχαιΐς, Άχαιός) League was a confederation of states on the Peloponnese.
Achaia (Άχαία) is an epithet of the immortal Goddess Demeter. Achtheia (Άχθεία) means Demeter.
Achaneia (άχάνεια) means immensity, infinite expanse. Achri (ἅχρι) means to the uttermost.
Map of the Aetolian (yellow) and Achaean (Άχαιΐς, Άχαιός) (green) Leagues circa 336-323 BCE. http://www.emersonkent.com/map_archive/aetolian_achaean_league.htm
An akos (ἅκος) is a cure, remedy.
Akeomai (άκέομαι) means heal, cure, staunch, mend, repair, apply a remedy. Akesias (άκεσίας) means healing. Akes- (άκεσ-) is a prefix meaning to heal, medicinal.
Askeetees (ἅσκητής) means one who practices any art or trade, the basis for the word ascetic.
Askleepios (Άσκληπιός) is Asclepios, the immortal God of medicine.
Althaino (άλθαίνω) means heal.
Aloee (άλόη) means aloes, Aloe vera. Aleipho (άλείφω) means to anoint the skin with oil.
Aphugiazo (άφῠγιάζω) means cure, heal.
Achos (ἅχος) means pain, distress, the basis for the word ache.
Ambrotos (ἅμβροτος) means immortal, divine, belonging to the immortal Gods and Goddesses.
Ambrosia (άμβροσία) is a mixture of water, oil, and various fruits, the elixir of life when coupled with nectar (νέκταρ).
Ambrosia (Άμβροσία) is also a festival of Bacchus, the immortal God of wine.
Amma (άμμά) means mother.
Amelgo (άμέλγω) means to milk, squeeze out milk, press out milk.
Amneios (άμνεῖος) is the inner membrane surrounding the fetus, the basis of the word amniotic.
Amnias (Άμνιάς) is an epithet of Eileithyia, the immortal Goddess of childbirth.
Andreia (άνδρεία) and andria (άνδρία) mean manliness, manly spirit, also of women, brave deeds, hardihood. Andreios (άνδρεῖος) means of or for a man, manly, masculine, courageous, literally “arising prevailing directed-trajectory.”
Arreno- (άρρενο-) and arseno- (άρσενο-) are prefixes meaning male.
Arreen (ἅρρην) means male. Arseen (ἅρσην) means virile.
The Greeks are seafaring people.
Alee (ἅλη) means wandering or roaming without home or hope of rest, literally “arising loosened center.” Allee (ἅλλη) means elsewhere.
Alias (άλιάς) means of or belonging to the sea. Interestingly, in English, alias means a name one goes by in lieu of one’s given name.
Als (ἅλς) means the sea; also, salt. Ali- (άλί-) is a prefix meaning sea or salt. Alee (άλή) are salt-works. Alia (άλία) is a salt-cellar.
Alm- (άλμ-) is a prefix meaning brine, saltiness.
Aluo (άλύω) means to be fretful, restless, distraught, beside oneself.
Allo- (άλλο-) is a prefix meaning another, strange, different, foreign.
The Amazons (Άμαζών) were a female society of warriors.
Ama (ἅμᾰ) means all at once, at the same time, the basis for the word amaze, defined by Webster’s as “to overwhelm with surprise or sudden wonder; astonish greatly.” Amudis (ἅμῠδις) means at the same time, together, all together.
The New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, gives an account of the amazing Amazons:
“The origin of this cult (Artemis of Ephesus) was said to go back to the Amazons, . . . female warriors who had come from the region of the Caucasus to settle in Cappadocia on the banks of the Thermodon (River). There the Amazons founded a state whose capital was Themiscyra and which was ruled over by a queen. Men were not admitted. Once a year the Amazons would go to their neighbours the Gargarensians [Georgians?] to form temporary unions. Of the children which resulted therefrom they would keep only the girls who, from infancy, were trained for the chase (hunting) and for war . . .
Map of Caucasus Region http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dailywritingtips.com/wp-content/uploads/caucasus.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.dailywritingtips.com/word-of-the-day-caucasian/&usg=__xYJjKkqezOpLgjmhBOdltsPNurg=&h=364&w=363&sz=78&hl=en&&um=1&tbnid=l83-gpakgR5_9M:&tbnh=121&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dcaucasus%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26sa%3DN%26um%3D1
“To the Amazons was attributed the foundation of many towns: Smyrna, Ephesus, Cyme, Myrina and Paphos. From Cappadocia they reached the islands, landed at Lesbos and Samothrace, and had even penetrated Boeotia and Attica (Athens region). The motives for the invasion of Attica was to avenge the abduction of Antiope, the sister of Amazon Queen Hippolyta. The Amazons also fought in Lycia against Bellerophon. During the Trojan War they came to the aid of Troy.”
(New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology (London: Hamlyn Publishing, 1959) 122.)
Coin from Myrina, 300 BCE, Head of Athena/ Head of Artemis facing. http://www.asiaminorcoins.com/gallery/thumbnails.php?album=10
Statuette of Victory,Found in Myrina (present-day Turkey) Terracotta H. 29 cm
Excavation of E. Pottier and S. Reinach Acquirted by the Louvre in 1883Inventory n° MYRINA 314, normal catalogue n° MYR 165 http://www.mam.gov.mo/photodetail.asp?productkey=2008041201116&lc=3
Myrina is on the island of Limnos near the Hellespont. http://www.sigmabooks.gr/images/maps_greece_small/myrina.jpg
Diodorus of Sicily (Διοδώρου τοτ Σικελιωτου) gives the following account of the Amazons:
“44. After these events there came in Scythia a period of revolutions, in which the sovereigns were women endowed with exceptional valour. For among these peoples the women train for war just as do the men and in acts of manly valour are in no wise inferior to the men. Consequently distinguished women have been the authors of many great deeds, not in Scythia alone, but also in the territory bordering upon it . . .
45. Now in the country along the Thermodon river (In Pontus (cp. Strabo, 12. 3. 14-15), as the account goes, the sovereignty was in the hands of a people among whom the women held the supreme power, and its women performed the services of war just as did the men. Of these women one, who possessed the royal authority, was remarkable for her prowess in war and her bodily strength, and gathering together an army of women she drilled it in the use of arms and subdued in war some of the neighbouring peoples.
2 And since her valour and fame increased, she made war upon people after people of neighbouring lands, and as the tide of her fortune continued favourable, she was so filled with pride that she gave herself the appellation of Daughter of Ares; but to the men she assigned the spinning of wool and such other domestic duties as belong to women. Laws also were established by her, by virtue of which she led forth the women to the contests of war, but upon the men she fastened humiliation and slavery . . .
4 In general, this queen was remarkable for her intelligence and ability as a general, and she founded a great city named Themiscyra at the mouth of the Thermodon river and built there a famous palace; furthermore, in her campaigns she devoted much attention to military discipline and at the outset subdued all her neighbours as far as the Tanaïs river.
5 And this queen, they say, accomplished the deeds which have been mentioned, and fighting brilliantly in a certain battle she ended her life heroically.
46. The daughter of this queen, the account continues, on succeeding to the throne emulated the excellence of her mother, and even surpassed her in some particular deeds. For instance, she exercised in the chase the maidens from their earliest girlhood and drilled them daily in the arts of war, and she also established magnificent festivals both to Ares and to the Artemis who is called Tauropolus (The Taurian Artemis, so well known from the Iphigeneia among the Taurians of Euripedes.).
2 Then she campaigned against the territory lying beyond the Tanaïs and subdued all the peoples one after another as far as Thrace; and returning to her native land with much booty she built magnificent shrines to the deities mentioned above, and by reason of her kindly rule over her subjects received from them the greatest approbation. She also campaigned on the other side (i.e. south of the Black Sea) and subdued a large part of Asia and extended her power as far as Syria.
3 After the death of this queen, as their account continues, women of her family, succeeding to the queenship from time to time, ruled with distinction and advanced the nation of the Amazons in both power and fame. And many generations after these events, when the excellence of these women had been noised abroad through the whole inhabited world, they say that Heracles, the son of Alcmenê and Zeus, was assigned by Eurystheus the Labour of securing the girdle of Hippolytê the Amazon (The story is given in detail in Book 4. 16.).
4 Consequently he embarked on this campaign, and coming off victorious in a great battle he not only cut to pieces the army of the Amazons but also, after taking captive Hippolytê together with her girdle, completely crushed this nation. Consequently the neighbouring barbarians, despising the weakness of this people and remembering against them their past injuries, waged continuous wars against the nation to such a degree that they left in existence not even the name of the race of the Amazons.
5 For a few years after the campaign of Heracles against them, they say, during the time of the Trojan War, Penthesileia, the queen of the surviving Amazons, who was a daughter of Ares and had slain one of her kindred, fled from her native land because of the sacrilege (Quintus Smyrnaeus (1. 24 f.) says that she killed her sister Hippolyte on a hunt, while hurling her spear at a stag.). And fighting as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Hector she slew many of the Greeks, and after gaining distinction in the struggle she ended her life heroically at the hands of Achilles.
6 Now they say that Penthesileia was the last of the Amazons to win distinction for bravery and that for the future the race diminished more and more and then lost all its strength . . .”
(Diodorus Siculus (of Sicily). Library of History Book II, 44-46, translated by C. H. Oldfather, Loeb Classical Library Volume 303 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd.,1935) 29-37.)
Adrias (Άδρίας) means Adriatic.
The Adriatic Sea lies between Italy and the Serbo-Croatian coast. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adriatic_Sea
Aigaios (Αίγαῖος) means Aegean.
Aegean in the Bronze Age. http://www.coloradocollege.edu/dept/HY/Ashley/hy104/images/MapKeys/MapAncientMed.htm
Aigi- (αίγι-) and aigo- (αίγο-) are prefixes meaning goat. An aigis (αίγίς) is a goatskin worn as a dress; the skin shield carried by Zeus, Athena, and Apollo; and the dress worn by the priestesses of Athena.
Argeios (Άργεῖος) means from Argos (Άργός), the Greeks in general. The Argo (Άργώ) is the ship of the Argonauts. Argees (άργῆς) is a kind of serpent. Argees (άργής) means white. Argi- (άργί-) is a prefix meaning white. Argur- (άργῠρ-) is a prefix meaning silver, arguros (άργῠρος).
Arkadia (Άρκᾰδία), Arcadia, occupied the central highlands of the Peloponnese.
Map of the regions of the Ancient Peloponnese showing Arcadia.
Ara (άρά) means prayer. The words Arabia (Άρᾰβία) and Arab (Ἃραψ) share this prefix.
Arioi (Ἃριοι) is the ancient name of the Medes, the inhabitants of the Persian satrapy of Areia (Άρεία) (corresponding roughly with Afghanistan).
Aria is shown in the eastern part of this map depicting “The Oriental Empires,” circa 600 BCE. Credits University of Texas at Austin. Historical Atlas by William Shepherd (1923-26).
Asia (Ἅσία) is Asia. Note that Sia (Σιά) is Laconian for Thea (Θεά), Goddess.
Assuria (Άσσυρία) is Syria. Note that sur (συρ) means pipe, anything acting as a pipe or pipeline, a flowing together, conflux.
Syria, shown in purple, below, serves as a northern Mediterranean port for much of Asia, a “pipeline” to and from Asia.
Syria, in purple, provides port access to the Mediterranean for much of Asia.
Ausonia (Αύσονία) is Italy. Austeeros (αύστηρός) means harsh, rough, bitter, austere, rugged, severe, the basis for the word austerity.
Aima (αίμα) means blood, literally “arising divine-power meta.”
Amee (ἅμη) means a water-bucket, pail, spade.
Ammos (ἅμμος) means sand.
Aoteo (αωτέω) and aoros (αωρος) mean sleep.
Apallagee (άπαλλᾰγή) means deliverance, release, relief from, to set free, the basis for the word apology. An apalias (άπᾰλίας) is a suckling pig, sacrificed to the immortal Goddess Demeter.
Apaks (ἅπαξ) means once, once only.
Aploos (άπλόος) means simple, single.
Arachnees (άραχνης) means spider, arachnid.
Aruteer (άρῠτήρ) means a ladle or a cup.
Aspis (άσπίς) means a shield.
Astu (ἅστυ) means city or town; astikos (άστικός) means of a city or town.
Asulaios (άσῦλαῖος) mean asylum, sanctuary, safe place for a person. Asulos (ἅσύλος) means safe.
Ascholeo (άσχολέω) means engage, occupy, be busy with, such as a scholar devoted to a particular line of knowledge.
Attideia (Άττίδεια) is a festival of Attis, beloved of the immortal Goddess Kubelee (Κῠβέλη), Kybele.
Aphar (ἅφᾰρ) means straightway, forthwith, swift, fleet.
Aphenos (ἅφενος) means revenue, riches, wealth, abundance. Aphneios (άφνειός) means rich, wealthy.
Aphiksis (ἅφιξις) means arrival. Aphodos (ἅφοδος) means departure.
Acheloos (Άχελῶος) is the name of several rivers, any stream; water, literally “arising foundation essence loosened.”
Acheron (Άχέρων) is a river in the netherworld. One of Sappho’s poems speaks of a yearning to see Acheron:
"but a kind of yearning has hold of me—to die
and to look upon the dewy lotus banks
(Sappho. If Not, Winter: Fragments of Sappho, Fragment 95, translated by Anne Carson (New York: Vintage Books, a division of Random House, 2000) 189. http://inamidst.com/stuff/sappho/ )
Achtheo (άχθέω) means a load, weight, burden. Achthomai (ἅχθομαι) means to be loaded. Achthos (ἅχθος) means a burden, a load.
Aps (ἅψ) means backwards, again, in return, yet again, literally “arising incorporeal.” Apsinthia (άψινθία) is a wine prepared with Artemesia/ wormwood. Apsis (άψίς) is an arch or orbit.
MISTRANSLATION OF Α:
The letter Α is commonly mistranslated as meaning “not, want, or absence.”
An example of this mistranslation is the word atheist, atheotees (άθεότης), literally “arising belief in a deity.” Arising belief in a deity is not uncommon among polytheistic and multicultural societies.
Arising above belief in a deity is a common perspective for those dissatisfied with religious explanations for phenomena.
Atheotees (άθεότης) is (mis)translated by the Liddell and Scott Greek-English Lexicon as “[G]odlessness.” The Lexicon also translates atheotees (άθεότης) as neglect of the [G]ods [and Goddesses] of the State.